The ECTS guide (European Credit Transfer System) is the European system for the accumulation and credits transfer . It is a Tool for students, teachers and administrative staff of higher education institutions that ensures the transfer of academic results (in terms of grades) among different national assessment systems.
Thanks to its transparency, this system aims to facilitate the planning , the delivery, the evaluation and the recognition of courses and periods of study and helps student mobility.
ECTS credits are based on the kind of work students are in charge of in order to achieve the expected learning outcomes. Learning outcomes describe what students should know, understand and be able to do after successful completion of a given learning process. The workload indicates the time to which students typically need to perform all the learning activities (participation in lectures and seminars, implementation of projects and other work, individual study and examinations) required to achieve the expected learning outcomes . 60 ECTS credits correspond to the workload of one year of full-time study in a formal setting (academic year) and the associated learning outcomes. In most European countries the annual workload is between 1,500 and 1,800 hours; for which a credit corresponds to about 25 – 30 hours of study.
Credits are allocated to the entire study courses and to each teaching unit that constitutes it, such as, teaching, training, preparation of the thesis and laboratory work. The ECTS scale is divided into 5 levels (A: 10% higher; B: the next 25%, C: next 30% D: next 25%; E: 10% lower). It has been replaced by ECTS table for the conversion of ratings: the above is a simple statistical distribution of the votes based on the scale used in the different national systems, drawn up for each study program or for each group of related courses. It enables immediate comparison of the vote between two or more systems and cultures and allows interpretation and translation of simple and transparent votes from one system to another.